We are living in a data-driven world in the true sense of the term. Research says that by the year 2025, the amount of data created worldwide would touch 181 zettabytes—for context, it takes a trillion gigabytes to make 1 zettabyte. Moreover, as a business entity willing to thrive in the digital age, harnessing the power of data is a must. But with so much data available all around, it’s inevitable to make mistakes and fall into the trap of bad data. This is where data transformation comes into the picture. It makes the available data suitable for visualization and analysis, so you can avoid errors and derive accurate insights. 

In this article, we’ll take a deep dive into data transformation—how it works, what are the different types and techniques, why it’s beneficial for businesses, and more. So, let’s get started. 

What is Data Transformation?

Data transformation is the backstage magician that ensures the show runs smoothly, making data more accessible and actionable for businesses, researchers, and analysts alike.

To put it theoretically, it is the process of converting data from one format, structure, or representation into another, with the aim of making it more suitable for analysis, storage, or presentation. This can involve various operations, such as cleaning, filtering, aggregating, or reshaping data.

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Data transformation is a crucial step in data preparation for tasks like data analysis, machine learning, and reporting, as it helps ensure that data is accurate, relevant, and in a format that can yield valuable insights or be readily utilized by applications and systems.

How is Data Transformation Used?

Data transformation comes in handy when it’s time to convert your existing data to match the data format of the destination system. It takes place in two places—for on-site storage setups, it’s part of the extract, transform, load (ETL) process during the ‘transform’ step. And in cloud-based environments, where scalability is high, ETL can be skipped in favor of a process known as extract, load, and transform (ELT), transforming data as it’s uploaded. This second method of data transformation can be manual, automated, or a blend of both.

Data Transformation Stages

The data transformation process looks something like this: 

1. Discovery

Data transformation begins with the discovery phase. During this stage, data analysts and engineers identify the need for transformation. This can result from data coming in from different sources, being in incompatible formats, or needing to be prepared for specific analysis or reporting.

2. Mapping

Once the need for transformation is identified, the next step is to create a mapping plan. This involves specifying how data elements from the source should be mapped or transformed into the target format. Moreover, mapping may include renaming columns, merging data, splitting data, or aggregating values.

3. Code Generation

After mapping is defined, data transformation code needs to be generated. Depending on the complexity of the transformation, this can involve writing SQL queries, Python or R scripts, or using specialized ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) tools. This code is responsible for executing the defined transformations.

4. Execution

With the transformation code in place, the data transformation process is executed. Source data is ingested, and the transformations are applied according to the mapping plan. This step may occur in real-time or as part of batch processing, depending on the use case.

5. Review

The transformed data should be thoroughly reviewed to ensure that it meets the intended objectives and quality standards. This includes checking for accuracy, completeness, and data integrity. Data quality issues need to be identified and addressed during this phase.

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Data Transformation Techniques

Let’s have a look at some key data transformation techniques that your business needs on a day-to-day basis: 

Data Smoothing

Data smoothing involves reducing noise or fluctuations in data by applying techniques like moving averages or median filtering. Moreover, it helps in making data more manageable and understandable by removing small-scale variations.

Use cases: Often used in time series data to identify trends and patterns by removing short-term noise.

Attribution Construction

Attribution construction involves creating new attributes or features from existing data. However, this technique can involve mathematical operations, combining different attributes, or extracting relevant information.

Use cases: Commonly used in feature engineering for machine learning, creating composite features that can enhance predictive models.

Data Generalization

Data generalization involves reducing the level of detail in data while retaining important information. This is often used to protect sensitive information or to simplify complex data.

Use cases: In data anonymization, generalization is used to hide specific identities while preserving the overall structure of the data.

Data Aggregation

Data aggregation combines multiple data points into a single summary value. This summary can be the result of mathematical operations like sum, average, count, or more complex aggregations.

Use cases: Commonly used in data analysis and reporting to simplify large datasets and extract meaningful insights.

Data Discretization

Data discretization involves converting continuous data into discrete categories or bins. This can be useful when working with continuous variables in classification or clustering.

Use cases: Used in machine learning to transform numerical data into categorical features, making it easier to analyze and model.

Data Normalization

Data normalization standardizes data by scaling it to a common range, typically between 0 and 1 or with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1. It helps in comparing variables with different scales.

Use cases: Widely used in machine learning algorithms like gradient descent to improve convergence and performance.

Each of these data transformation techniques serves a specific purpose in data analysis, preprocessing, and modeling, and their selection depends on the nature of the data and the goals of the analysis or machine learning task.

Want to empower your business with operational intelligence? Get started with FLIP, an analytics-focused DataOps automation solution by Kanerika, and stay on top of data transformation and management. 

Benefits of Data Transformation

Transformation of data offers a plethora of benefits in the context of data analysis, machine learning, and decision-making:

1. Improved Data Quality:

Data transformation helps in cleaning and preprocessing data, removing errors, duplicates, and inconsistencies, leading to higher data accuracy and reliability.

2. Enhanced Compatibility:

It makes data from different sources or formats compatible, facilitating integration and analysis across diverse datasets.

3. Reduced Dimensionality:

Techniques like PCA or feature selection can reduce the dimensionality of data, simplifying analysis and potentially improving model performance.

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4. Normalized Data:

Standardization and normalization make data scales consistent, preventing certain features from dominating others, which can be crucial for algorithms like gradient descent.

5. Effective Visualization:

Transformed data is often more suitable for creating informative and visually appealing charts, graphs, and dashboards.

6. Increased Model Performance:

Preprocessing, including feature scaling and engineering, can enhance the performance of machine learning models, leading to more accurate predictions.

7. Reduced Overfitting:

Dimensionality reduction and outlier handling can help prevent overfitting by simplifying models and making them more generalizable.

8. Better Interpretability:

Transformation can make complex data more interpretable and understandable, aiding in decision-making and insights generation.

9. Handling Missing Data:

Imputation techniques fill in missing values, ensuring that valuable data is not lost during analysis.

10. Enhanced Time-Series Analysis:

Time-series decomposition and smoothing techniques make it easier to identify trends, patterns, and seasonality in data.

11. Improved Text Analysis:

Text preprocessing techniques, such as tokenization and stemming, prepare text data for natural language processing (NLP) tasks.

12. Data Reduction:

Aggregation and summarization can reduce data size while retaining essential information, making it more manageable for storage and analysis.

13. Outlier Detection:

Data transformation helps in identifying and handling outliers that could skew analysis and modeling results.

14. Facilitates Decision-Making:

High-quality, transformed data provides more reliable insights, supporting data-driven decision-making in various fields, from business to healthcare.

15. Enhanced Data Privacy:

Data anonymization techniques can be part of data transformation, protecting sensitive information while retaining data utility.

Challenges of Data Transformation

Just like any other technical process, transformation also comes with a fair share of challenges. 

High Expense

Data transformation can be expensive, both in terms of hardware and software resources. Depending on the volume of data and complexity of transformations required, organizations may need to invest in powerful servers, storage, and specialized software tools.


Data transformation processes often demand significant computing power and memory. Large datasets or complex transformations can strain the available resources, potentially leading to slow processing times or even system failures.

Lack of Expertise

Effective transformation requires a deep understanding of both the data itself and the data automation tools used for transformation. Many organizations lack experts who are proficient in these areas, leading to suboptimal transformations or errors in the data.


As data volumes grow, the scalability of data transformation processes becomes a concern. Solutions that work well with small datasets may not perform adequately when processing terabytes or petabytes of data.

But the good news is, that with a powerful data transformation tool like FLIP by your side, you can overcome these shortcomings swiftly. 

Types of Data Transformation

There are various transformation techniques that are essential for businesses to manage and make sense of the vast amounts of data they collect from diverse sources. Let’s take a look at the most vital ones: 

Transformation through Scripting

This involves using scripting languages like Python or SQL to extract and manipulate data. Scripting allows for the automation of various processes, making it efficient for data analysis and modification. It requires less code compared to traditional programming languages, making it accessible and versatile for data tasks.

On-Premises ETL Tools

On-premises ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) tools are deployed internally, giving organizations full control over data processing and security. These tools can handle numerous data processing tasks simultaneously. They are preferred by industries with strict data privacy requirements, such as banking and government, but may require third-party connectors for mobile device integration.

Read More: How to build a scalable Data pipeline

Cloud-Based ETL Tools

Cloud-based ETL tools operate in the cloud, offering scalability and accessibility. However, data ownership and security can be ambiguous since data encryption and keys are often managed by third-party providers. Many cloud-based ETL systems are designed for mobile access, but this can raise security concerns, especially for sensitive data.

Constructive and Destructive Transformation

Constructive transformation involves enhancing data by adding, copying, or standardizing it. Destructive transformation, on the other hand, cleans and simplifies data by removing fields or records. These transformations can be complex and error-prone, as they aim to make data more useful while balancing complexity.

Structural Data Transformation

Structural transformation involves, which may include combining, splitting, rearranging, or creating new data structures. This transformation can modify a dataset’s geometry, topology, and characteristics. It can be simple or complex, depending on the desired changes in the data’s structure.

Aesthetic Data Transformation

Aesthetic transformation focuses on stylistic changes, such as standardizing values like street names. It may also involve modifying data to meet specific specifications or parameters. Aesthetic data transformation helps organizations improve data quality and consistency for better operational and analytical insights.

Best Practices for Transforming Data Effectively

Data transformation is a complex and challenging process that requires careful planning, execution, and monitoring.

You should follow some best practices, such as:

  1. Define clear objectives and goals, to ensure the success and quality of data transformation efforts, 
  2. Identify the key stakeholders, users, and beneficiaries of the process and involve them in planning.
  3. Evaluate the source data and assess the data quality. 
  4. Maintain standard data formats to ensure that data is in a consistent and compatible format across different sources.
  5. Use common standards and conventions for data naming, structuring, encoding, and representation. 
  6. Protect data from unauthorized access, modification, or loss during the transformation process.
  7. Focus on compliance with regulations or policies regarding data privacy and security.
  8. Review the transformed data and validate its authenticity. 
  9. Finally, establish a set of rules and guidelines for managing data throughout its lifecycle stages.


Why Do Businesses Need Data Transformation?

By engaging in transformation, you can uncover trends, identify customer preferences, and optimize your operations. It also enables you as a decision-maker to make more accurate forecasts, enhance customer experiences, and support your strategic planning. 

Data transformation also empowers you to adapt to changing market conditions, make data-backed decisions, and drive innovation, ensuring the long-term success of your business in an increasingly digital landscape.

Kanerika’s robust solutions, empower businesses to democratize and harness the full potential of their data pipelines faster and at a lower cost. 

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What are real-life examples of data transformation?

One real-life example of data transformation is in financial reporting. Companies often collect raw transactional data, such as sales figures and expenses, and transform it into consolidated financial statements like balance sheets and income statements. Another example is in weather forecasting, where meteorologists gather raw data from various sources like satellites and weather stations, and then apply transformations to generate visual representations and predictions. Additionally, in healthcare, patient records are transformed from unstructured data into standardized formats for analysis and research. These examples illustrate how data transformation is crucial in converting raw information into usable and meaningful insights across various industries.

What is ETL in data?

ETL in data stands for Extract, Transform, Load. It is a process used in data management and analytics. Firstly, data is extracted from various sources like databases, files, or APIs. Next, it undergoes transformation, where it’s cleaned, filtered, and structured to meet specific criteria or formatting requirements. This may involve tasks like aggregation, data enrichment, and normalization. Finally, the transformed data is loaded into a target database or data warehouse for analysis or reporting. ETL plays a crucial role in ensuring data quality, consistency, and accessibility, enabling businesses to derive valuable insights from diverse and often complex datasets.

Is SQL an ETL tool?

SQL (Structured Query Language) is not specifically an ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) tool, but it can be used as part of the ETL process. SQL is primarily a query language used to interact with databases and retrieve and manipulate data. In the ETL process, SQL can be employed for the “T” (Transform) step. It’s used to perform various data transformations such as filtering, aggregating, joining, and applying functions on the extracted data before loading it into the target database or data warehouse. However, dedicated ETL tools like Apache NiFi, Talend, or Informatica are designed to handle the entire ETL process, including extraction, transformation, and loading, often with added features like scheduling, monitoring, and error handling, making them more comprehensive solutions for ETL tasks.