The world of artificial intelligence is presently undergoing a great transformation. In that aspect, large language models, which were formerly enshrouded in secrecy and protected by private companies, are becoming available for open-source. These powerful AI systems, having been trained on gigantic data sets made up of texts and codes, possess such capabilities to produce human-like texts, translate languages smoothly with fluency, make various creative content and respond to your questions informatively as well. The change from proprietary LLMs to open source LLMs denotes a major turning point that democratizes access to this revolutionary technology and fostering a future brimming with possibilities



10 Top Open-Source Language Models

The thriving ecosystem of open-source LLM landscape is bursting with innovations. Below are some examples illustrating different qualities of such kinds:

Llama 2 (Meta):

    • General Capabilities: Llama 2 is a highly capable 7 billion to 70 billion parameter LLM family from Meta. It excels at reasoning, coding, and knowledge-intensive tasks.
    • Use Cases: Llama 2 can be used for a wide range of natural language processing applications, including language generation, question answering, code generation and analysis, and knowledge-based tasks.

Falcon (Technology Innovation Institute, UAE):

    • General Capabilities: Falcon is a massive-scale model with up to 180 billion parameters, developed by the Technology Innovation Institute in the UAE. It demonstrates strong performance across various NLP applications, rivaling even closed-source models.
    • Use Cases: Falcon can be used for high-stakes, high-performance NLP tasks such as legal document analysis, scientific research, and enterprise-grade language understanding.

BLOOM (Hugging Face):

    • General Capabilities: BLOOM is a 176 billion parameter multilingual LLM developed through a collaborative effort. It is fluent in 46 languages and 13 programming languages.
    • Use Cases: BLOOM can be used for multilingual applications, including translation, multilingual content generation, and cross-lingual information retrieval.

OPT-175B (Meta):

    • General Capabilities: OPT-175B is Meta’s 175 billion parameter open-source LLM, designed with a focus on safety and responsible use.
    • Use Cases: OPT-175B can be used for a wide range of language tasks while emphasizing ethical and responsible AI development.

Mistral 7B (Mistral AI):

    • General Capabilities: Mistral 7B is a 7 billion parameter “do-it-all” model with efficient inference, available in multiple sizes and variants.
    • Use Cases: Mistral 7B can be used as a general-purpose language model for a wide range of NLP applications, with a focus on efficiency and cost-effectiveness.

MPT 7B (Mosaic ML):

    • General Capabilities: MPT 7B is a 7 billion parameter foundation model with a focus on safety and responsible development.
    • Use Cases: MPT 7B can be used in applications that require heightened attention to ethical AI principles and responsible deployment.

XGen 7B (Salesforce AI):

    • General Capabilities: XGen 7B is a 7 billion parameter model optimized for creative text generation tasks, balancing quality and efficiency.
    • Use Cases: XGen 7B can be used for applications that require high-quality, creative text generation, such as content creation, story writing, and ideation.

Vicuna (LMSYS):

    • General Capabilities: Vicuna is a 13 billion parameter chatbot model, fine-tuned from Llama 2, designed for engaging, open-ended conversations with a focus on safety.
    • Use Cases: Vicuna can be used to build conversational AI assistants and chatbots that prioritize natural, safe, and ethical interactions.

DBRX (Databricks):

    • General Capabilities: DBRX is a transformer-based decoder-only LLM with 36 billion active parameters and 132 billion total parameters, developed by Databricks.
    • Use Cases: DBRX can be used for a variety of NLP tasks, with a focus on efficiency and performance, making it suitable for deployment in resource-constrained environments.

RedPajama (, ETH DS3Lab, CRFM Stanford):

    • General Capabilities: RedPajama is a family of 3 billion and 7 billion parameter base models with chat and instruction-following variants, built on the Pythia architecture.
    • Use Cases: RedPajama models can be used for conversational AI, task-oriented dialogue, and other applications that require strong performance on diverse language tasks.



Use Cases for Open-Source LLMs

Open-source LLMs have multiple applications that could disrupt different sectors. Here are a few use cases that highlight the transformative power of open-source LLM models:

1. Content Creation & Marketing

Open-source LLMs can streamline content creation processes significantly. They can help with writing blog posts, product descriptions, interesting social media updates and so on. In addition, they may be used for content summarization, plagiarism detection or even adaptation of texts according to different readers’ groups. Imagine entrepreneurs using an LLM for personalized marketing campaigns targeted at different customers; imagine bloggers starting blogs through an initial draft from such a tool then finishing by rewriting it in their own voice.

2. Better Customer Service 

Chatbots driven by open-source LLMs can offer 24/7 customer care, which provides a more convenient and efficient way for businesses to communicate with their customers. Frequently asked questions can be answered by these AI chatbots, they can also fix technical problems and even personalize interaction based on the individual customer’s specific needs. In addition to being able to respond to customer inquiries about a product, a customer service chatbot should also possess the capability of recommending complementary services or products that would enhance the overall experience of the customer.

3. Software Development

CodeGen is an example of one such open-source LLM that could revolutionize software development. Their code generation and analysis capabilities assist developers in writing cleaner, more efficient codes; automating repetitive tasks; and finding potential bugs before they become serious issues. In other words, consider a programmer who uses an LLM to automatically generate boilerplate code for a new project so as to save time for focusing on core functionalities and logic.


LLMs use cases


4. Education and Research

Personalized learning materials that can cater for specific students’ needs and learning styles could be developed through harnessing LLMs. Moreover, educational resources can be translated into multiple languages in order to ensure access as well as facilitate global knowledge dissemination. Furthermore, scientific discovery rates could be quickened by researchers using LLMs in data analysis as well as literature reviews. Imagine if you were a student with dyslexia using an LLM system to convert complex academic papers into simplified summaries or even a researcher using an LLM system capable of analyzing huge datasets thereby identifying emerging research trends.

5. Creative Exploration

Open-source LLMs are useful in creative explorations since they help writers brainstorm story ideas, create different types of creative text forms like poetry or scripts or even experiment with various writing styles. For instance, just imagine if there was a songwriter employing an LLM that helps him come up with new song lyrics or a screenwriter that could utilize an LLM to explore other plotlines and character development paths.

6. Accessibility Tools

LLMs can also be used to develop assistive technologies for visually impaired individuals and people with learning disabilities, thereby promoting inclusivity. The ability of LLMs to convert text into voice, create audio descriptions of pictures, as well as allowing personalization of user interfaces so that individual requirements can be met are instances of their application in this respect. For example, consider a visually impaired person who could use an LLM system to turn the text on a website into audio descriptions enabling them access information autonomously or even a learner who is dyslexic employing an LLM system in order to personalize font size and background color for better reading experience.


LLMs Case study


Getting Started with Open Source LLMs


1. Choose the Right LLM for Your Project

Start by defining what you want from your project like its requirements and objectives; it should be noted that things like model size, capabilities it has as well as compatibility with one’s development framework needs consideration. In other words, you might select GPT-3 because it has language understanding capabilities or DistilBERT which is less in size hence faster inference.

2. Set Up Development Environment

Develop a dedicated development environment either on your machine or using cloud-based environments. Ensure you have necessary tools such Python and framework (e.g., TensorFlow, PyTorch) you’ve chosen before installing anything else through the virtual environment which helps in managing dependencies effectively.


LLMs implementation


3. Install Libraries & Dependencies

Install the libraries and dependencies required to work with LLMs. Standard APIs like OpenAI’s or popular libraries such as transformers (for Hugging Face models) for smooth integration into a model.

4. Configuring Hardware Resources

Configure hardware resources accordingly, depending on the size of the model and its computational requirements. Use GPUs or TPUs for fast training and inference, optimize memory usage and manage batch size properly.

5. Exploring Tutorials and Documentation

Browse through the tutorials provided by creators of LLMs and their official documents. They offer methods for using models, fine-tuning techniques, developing them more efficiently, and achieving high performance levels.


Open Source LLMs


Best Practices for AI Development with Open Source LLMs


1. Data Ethics Considerations:

Ethical considerations should be given higher priority when collecting or handling data. Ensuring that sources of data are legal, obtaining consent where necessary, anonymizing when necessary among others is important in this regard. Data privacy and confidentiality must also be considered during development phases.

2. Privacy Bias And Fairness In AI

To further augment fairness in AI models, reduce biases within training datasets. Techniques for bias detection, fairness testing, or interpretability of models address these concerns by ensuring equitable outcomes.

3. Model Evaluation And Validation

Before deploying models across large scale settings validate and evaluate them. Employ standard evaluation metrics to test rigorously over multiple datasets as well as cross-validation techniques to better analyze model performance.

4. Benchmarking Performance

Compare how efficient the model is when aligned against established industry standards or benchmarks. Recognized benchmarks or competitor models can be used to compare metrics like accuracy rates; precision scores; recall rates; F1-scores etcetera.


LLM case study


5. Real-world Testing And Feedback

Evaluate the behavior of the model using real world scenarios. Observe user feedback; analyze performance under real-time conditions; iterate based on user input & observed results.

6. Engaging with the Open-Source Community

While staying up-to-date through interactions within open-source communities, share one’s insights with others. Join different forums that encourage open-source initiatives and attend conferences which promote knowledge sharing & innovation.

7. Contributing Back Improvements

Enhance an open source project whether it is about fixing bugs or making any other improvement. Share your knowledge and work together with developers all over the world to strengthen the overall AI-capabilities for all parties involved.

8. Collaborating on Projects

Team up with diverse stakeholders groups to pool together collective expertise and perspectives. This includes collaborating between AI researchers, domain experts, and end-users in order to develop solutions for real-life challenges


Open Source LLMs

Advantages of Open-Source LLMs

Open-source LLMs follow the principles of open-source software development. On the contrary, closed-source models have their underlying code, which defines how they function, available for free distribution. This allows anyone to examine, change or improve the model thus creating a research collaboration environment where people can contribute from their experiences respectively. Additionally, most often training data sources are made public thereby offering valuable information concerning model capabilities as well as possible biases.

According to Gartner, 55% of businesses were in the process of either piloting or launching LLM initiatives.

1. Accessibility 

Open-source LLMs eliminate financial barriers related to licensing fees. Thus allowing individuals who cannot afford licensing fee like startups and institutions with limited budgets for research implement and experiment using cutting edge AI technologies e.g., a small language learning app that personalizes learning experiences by leveraging on an open-source LLM or a non-profit organization translating educational materials using an LLM hence expanding their outreach among underserved communities .

2. Fostering Innovation

Open-source model promotes an active collaboration ecosystem. This development of open-source LLMs can be facilitated by researchers and programmers from all over the world. For instance, there is a programmer in India who might suggest improving the code, while it will be reviewed and implemented by a team located in Europe. As a result, this open sharing of ideas and knowledge speeds up innovation thereby leading to faster developments in LLM technology.

3. Improved Model Performance

The collective intelligence of the open-source community acts as a powerful force for improvement. The exploitation of biases in training data by the open-source approach may lead to more robust, accurate, and fair LLMs. Imagine diverse data scientists joining hands together to eliminate cultural biases from LLM so that it becomes truly inclusive for everyone.

4. Democratization of LLM Technology

Open source LLMs have lowered barriers to entry significantly for both developers and academic researchers utilizing it for research purposes. Thereby producing AI models that are more democratic in nature by harnessing contributions from the widest possible audience range towards reshaping its direction. It is like an AI enthusiastic student can download an open source language model on their computer and play around with it, perhaps perpetuating love for Artificial Intelligence that could lead to groundbreaking discovery.


GPT models


Challenges of Open-Source LLMs


1. Computational Resources

Running large open-source language models often requires powerful hardware infrastructure such as GPUs and memory sizes that are substantial . This can deter some individuals especially those without access to strong computers or small organizations with limited computational resources at their disposal. Though cloud-based solutions have been invented to solve this challenge, making sure they remain affordable is important.

2. Deployment and Expertise 

Deployment of models and optimizing them for specific tasks usually requires some level of expertise particularly of machine learning or data science. Some open-source projects offer user-friendly interfaces and tutorials, navigating the complexities of model deployment and optimization can still pose a challenge for non-technical users.

3. Potential Biases

The open-source LLMs like other AI models can have biases that come from the training data. They can take on many forms such as generating text that is stereotypical or propagating existing inequalities. It is therefore critical to acknowledge these possible biases and put in place some mitigation measures e.g., using a variety of training sets and running checks of fairness during development.

Open Source LLM Licensing

When deciding whether to adopt an open source large language model (LLM), it’s important to be familiar with the licenses governing usage, modification, and distribution. Below are the key licensing terms, their implications for commercial use, and popular licenses applied to open-source LLMs.

Understanding Licensing Terms

Software licensing terms define how to use, alter, and distribute software. Open-source licenses typically allow for broad use, but they can vary significantly in terms of restrictions and obligations. For instance, Apache 2.0 license offers great freedom including commercial use as long as a substantial portion of the software retains the original copyright notice and license text.

Implications for Commercial Use

A good comprehension of licensing fees and limitations is crucial for those businesses that want to exploit open-source LLMs commercially at an enterprise scale. Many free and open source licenses do not charge a fee, but may require you to disclose any changes made as well as put restrictions on mixing open source software with proprietary software.


Generative AI


Popular Open Source LLM Licenses

In the realm of open-source LLMs, popular licenses are Apache 2.0 and MIT. The reason why these licenses are preferred is because they are lenient with many specifications that have easy-to-use language. They can be summarized as shown below:

Apache 2.0:

  • Commercial Use: Permitted
  • Distribution: Permitted
  • Modification: Permitted
  • Patent Grant: Provided
  • Private Use: Allowed
  • State Changes: Must keep track of it
  • Trademark Use: Limited


  • Commercial Use: Permitted
  • Distribution: Permitted
  • Modification: Permitted
  • Private Use: Allowed
  • License and Copyright Notice: Must accompany all copies or substantial portions of the software

Users must ensure compliance with these conditions to legally exploit the full potential of open-source LLMs for their projects or commercial ventures.


Community and Collaboration 

Community participation and collaboration foster innovation in open-source Large Language Models (LLMs) which are rapidly evolving. Platforms for Open Source Contributions serve as the foundation for developing LLM where AI enthusiasts, researchers, industry experts meet to refine base models like Falcon-40B.

Open Source Contributions and Collaboration Platforms

Diverse user contributions underpin the success stories associated with some open source LLM projects. Hugging Face is one such platform where the Falcon-40B model among others benefits from constant inputs from communities out there in active mode. These contributors may develop other capabilities such as model sizes or training datasets; making them more useful still. Community involvement therefore plays a huge role in pushing the limits of what might be achieved using LLMs like GPT-NeoX-20B for instance, which is being pushed by OpenAI. These collaborative ecosystems enable contributors to share code, solve issues, and enhance functionality.

Collaboration Platforms

  • GitHub
  • Hugging Face
  • OpenAI Community
  • Sharing Insights and Best Practices

LLMs cannot be refined without developers and enthusiasts sharing their knowledge. Forums and collaboration platforms facilitate exchange of best practices on model training, methodology and implementation thereby fostering innovation while debugging and improving model performance. By sharing expertise through OpenLLAMA, the aim becomes clear on how much shared insights help in moving towards better LLMs. Such interactions contribute to a growing knowledge base that can accelerate the development of more robust and efficient models.

Facets of Sharing:

  • Methodology: Better ways of training models as well as fine-tuning them
  • Interpretability: Strategies for making decisions taken by LLMs more explicit
  • Inclusivity: Ensuring diverse datasets and reducing bias in AI models

Multimodal models

Building an Inclusive Open Source AI Ecosystem

An inclusive AI ecosystem welcomes people from different backgrounds to participate so as to steer its course. Open source initiatives strive towards reducing barriers to entry while embracing diversity in perspectives considered. This creates an enabling environment for foundation models integration with wider experiences leading to balanced representative AI systems. This kind of all-embracing ecosystem will go a long way in democratizing AI besides nurturing a culture of openness among innovators.

Qualities of an Inclusive AI Ecosystem:

  • Accessible: User-friendly platforms with resources meant for beginners up to advanced users alike.
  • Diverse: Cultivation of varied contributions to reduce bias and enhance model applicability
  • Supportive: Guiding new contributors through their first contributions

In general, the open-source LLM community and collaboration enables cutting edge innovation and ensures that a wide array of insights and expertise shape advances in AI.

Trust Kanerika to Effectively Leverage Open-Source LLMs

The landscape of open-source LLM is huge and ever changing. Identifying the best-in-breed model for your specific needs and then successfully integrating it into your AI/ML solution requires expertise and experience. The expert team of AI specialists at Kanerika have been leading the way in open-source LLM advancements.

We can help you:

Navigate an Open-Source LLM Landscape: Our experts can guide you through the ever-expanding world of open-source LLMs, identifying how this model fits into your project requirements.

Ensure Responsible Development: We prioritize ethical considerations and responsible development practices throughout the entire process.

Build Efficient AI/ML Solutions: With our technical ability we can effortlessly integrate open-source LLMs with your existing infrastructure so as to build strong AI/ML solutions.

Do you want to leverage the power of open-source LLMs for your AI ML Initiatives? Contact Kanerika today to discuss how we can transform your business.

By getting involved with Kanerika, you can:

  • Gain a Competitive Advantage: Stay ahead of the curve by leveraging the latest advancements in open-source LLMs.
  • Reduce Costs and Time to Market: Our expertise can help you avoid costly missteps and accelerate your AI/ML development process.

Build Trust and Transparency: Our commitment to responsible development ensures that your AI solutions are ethical and trustworthy.


Open-source LLMs


Frequently Asked Questions


What is a open source LLM?

An open-source Large Language Model (LLM) is a freely available model that can be modified and customized by anyone without licensing fees. These models are built on neural network architecture, capable of tasks like content generation, translation, and sentiment analysis. They offer transparency, flexibility, and community-led innovation, making them ideal for various applications across industries

What is LLM in generative AI?

In generative AI, LLM stands for Large Language Model. These models are specifically designed for tasks related to natural language generation and comprehension. LLMs operate by leveraging extensive datasets to learn patterns, grammar, and semantics of human language, enabling them to generate coherent and contextually relevant responses to given prompts or inputs. They are a fundamental component in various applications such as text completion, translation, chatbots, and content generation

What are the leading open-source LLMs available for commercial use?

Some of the best open source LLMs for commercial applications include GPT-NeoX-20B, Anthropic’s Claude with 12 billion parameters, and Meta AI’s LLaMA 2. They provide unlimited uses and enhanced functionality.

is ChatGPT also based on LLM?

ChatGPT, a chatbot service developed by OpenAI, utilizes the GPT backend, which is based on a Large Language Model (LLM). This LLM consists of essential components: the Transformer Architecture, Tokens, Context Window, and Neural Network, characterized by the number of parameters it possesses.

Is Google Bard a LLM?

Yes, Google Bard is a Large Language Model (LLM) developed by Google, designed as an interface to enable users to collaborate with generative AI. It is powered by a research large language model, specifically a lightweight and optimized version of LaMDA, with plans for updates using newer, more capable models over time

Which are repositories known for hosting robust open-source LLMs?

Hugging Face is one of the machine learning repositories with a myriad of such models. It has a vibrant AI community as well as a vast selection of LLMs.

How can open-source LLMs be integrated into existing projects without disruption?

It is possible to integrate open-source LLMs into existing projects either through embedding model weights directly or using APIs. The ease of integration will be determined by project frameworks compatibility as well as custom configurations necessary for optimum performance.

Is LLAMA 2 free to use?

Yes, Llama 2 is free for both research and commercial use, offering individuals, creators, researchers, and businesses the opportunity to leverage its capabilities without any cost barriers. This open-source large language model, trained on 2 trillion tokens with extended context length compared to its predecessor, aims to foster innovation, responsible experimentation, and ethical AI advancements across various sectors

What are the differences in performance among the top open-source LLMs?

Performance varies based on the model's architecture, data it was trained on, and parameter size. LLMs like Anthropic's Claude are known for their reliable instruction tuning, while LLaMA 2 is recognized for its powerful inference capabilities.

How often do open-source LLMS get updated and maintained within the community?

They vary between different projects based on their level of engagement with communities. Projects with active maintainers and community contributions typically see more frequent updates and continued maintenance.